The short answer is YES. Go play Ar nosurge. Usually there are follow-up questions though, so I want to get the messy long answer out there too.
How messy is it? Well, Ar nosurge is the sequel to an earlier game called Ciel nosurge that was released on the Playstation Vita on April 26, 2012. Except, it wasn't the full game they released, but rather the first chapter out of 12 (or 13, if you count the final Terminate Pack). This was Gust's foray into episodic DLC content - after forking out a hefty amount of money for the base game, new chapters would be released at a rate of about one every other month on PSN.
To make things messier, Ciel nosurge is not actually a traditional JRPG. It's basically a combination of a VN and a dating sim, and the game time flows based on real world time and thus takes months at minimum to complete (an Offline version has since been released that doesn't require an internet connection and where time can be sped up).
More mess: Ciel was only on Vita, Ar was initially only released on PS3 (a Vita 'Plus' version has since been released)
MORE mess!: Ar nosurge was released before the episodic content in Ciel nosurge was finished! All of us who had been faithfully following Ciel nosurge's updates were only on Chapter 9 when the release of Ar nosurge spoiled the rest of Ciel nosurge for us. So even those of us who played it in release order in Japanese still didn't quite get the experience that the designers probably intended for us to get.
1a. You can play Ciel nosurge first. It is Japanese-only. It takes literally months to finish the online version, so your best bet is to buy Ciel nosurge Offline and play that instead, since it includes a time-skip functionality. Obviously, this is the most desirable option.
1b. You can read blackraen's Ciel nosurge summary first. He is adamant that his guide isn't necessary to enjoy Ar nosurge and he's right, but it's still a damn good reference and the closest thing to playing the game if you don't know Japanese. He did a great job, leave him some thanks in his comments sections.
2. Did you play Ar tonelico 1 and 2? Did you enjoy them (especially 2)? If yes, it's almost certain that you'll love Ar nosurge as well. If you didn't play them, don't worry too much about it. You will miss some things in Ar nosurge if you didn't play Ar tonelico 1, but nothing too plot critical. They're still great games though (Ar tonelico 2 is one of my all-time favorite JRPGs), so regardless of Ar nosurge, I recommend playing them if you get in the mood to visit your PS2 games backlog.
3. You can just hop right in to Ar nosurge without any of the above. It's understandable to be intimidated by the huge 'homework' of playing or reading Ciel and (less importantly) playing Ar tonelico 1, and if you think having to do those things is turning you off from considering playing it, just forget about them and hop right in to Ar nosurge. You will miss a lot of things, I won't lie, but the game does try to accommodate players who didn't play Ciel a little bit by slightly altering some dialogue and dumping some backstory in the opening.
God, these two games were a mess. A beautiful mess, but a mess nonetheless.